the Web designer
conceives of a very large or unusual Website structure,
it may require extensive engineering studies, which may
too much for the Web consultant you use to handle. It is
advisable in such cases to hire a licensed certified web
engineer on a consultant basis who can provide
designs that will be required in order for your
website to function properly. Such a consultant would
also supervise fabrication and installation of the
network structural work he has engineered.
The involved project of several large web servers which
require the services of a consultant web engineer, will
also require the engineer to work closely with the
designers, checking the strength of each design as the
development work proceeded. Basic problems and solutions
that came from this collaborative effort can be solved
through most professional agencies.
When Steven P. Jobs led Apple, he created a core principle for the company's engineers and designers: stay fully focused on making great products.
That philosophy continues to guide Apple, even under its new chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, says Jonathan Ive, the company's head of design. Mr. Ive, who rarely speaks publicly, said in an recent interview for an article about Apple under Mr. Cook that the company's design processes remained unchanged, healthy and vibrant. An edited transcript of the interview follows.
What does innovation culture look like at Apple under Tim Cook? How has it changed, if at all?
It has always been a case where you have a number of small groups working together.
We've worked together, most for 15 or 20 years.
That's a fairly typical story here: Creative teams are small and very focused. One of the underlying characteristics is being inquisitive and being curious. Some of those personal attributes and hallmarks haven't changed at all.
The way we make our products is certainly equally as demanding and requires so much definition. I make and design.
Deep in the culture of Apple is this sense and understanding of design, making and developing. Unless we understand a certain material-- metal or resin and plastic-- understanding the processes that turn it from ore, for example-- we can never define and develop form that's appropriate.
Steve established a set of values, and he established preoccupations and tones that are completely enduring-- and he established those principles with a small team of people. I've been ridiculously lucky to be part of it. Tim was very much part of that team-- for that last 15 or 20 years.
I remember clearly a time when we made plastic
portable computers, and Steve and Tim and I sat down and said we wanted to build a light and incredibly thin portable computer. There was a whole range of challenges from an engineering point of view: How it worked in a new material, titanium. That meant we had to completely redesign and discover new partners to work with, hire a whole new organization.
I've worked for the last 15 or 20 years on the most challenging, creative parts of what we do. I've been working on this stuff for a few years now.
Over years you develop a process-- we, a team, develop a process-- that process is healthy and incredibly vibrant and continues to evolve and grow.
You recently assumed leadership of software interface design. Has this altered the company's design process?
Just as I work, I'm working in the same way with the user interface team. The core creative community is very small but is also very close-- there's been changes there, but the change isn't perhaps as dramatic as you might assume.
What are we focusing on: focus on product. I wish I could do a better job in communicating this truth here, which is when you really are focused on the product, that's not a platitude.
What is it like working with Mr. Cook? Can you give us any examples or anecdotes that demonstrate his leadership?
Sometimes those meetings are over in his space, sometimes here in the
design studio. That's the definition of a designer-- trying to somehow articulate what contributes to the way we see the object.
Heading on for two decades working with Tim, one of the things I have always admired is the quiet consideration he gives to trying to understand how he perceives something. He will take the time. I think that testifies to the fact that he knows it's important.
Is it hard to be patient with yourselves while fans and investors alike are clamoring for the next iThing?
At any point in time, working on something, it's always hard to just keep focusing on the product. One of the things different between us and some of our competitors is we just focus on the product, developing good products.
Honestly, I don't think anything's changed. People felt exactly the same way when we were working on
My focus is incredibly narrow. I can't talk with any authority other than design and development of product. When I look back over the last 20 years, you have this sense that, you're working on something that's incredibly hard, when you're working on it, you don't know whether it's going to work out or not.
The benefit of hindsight is we only really talk about those things that did work out. You have this sense that you're working on something incredibly hard. When working on projects, you have this determination.
When that's your day to day, you're so consumed by the products and the problems and the challenges, that it's actually quite easy to be impatient.
That meant we had to completely redesign and discover new partners to work with, hire a whole new organization.
Just as I work, I'm working in the same way with the user interface team. At any point in time, working on something, it's always hard to just keep focusing on the product. When I look back over the last 20 years, you have this sense that, you're working on something that's incredibly hard, when you're working on it, you don't know whether it's going to work out or not.
You have this sense that you're working on something incredibly hard.